# IGCSE Chemistry Balancing Chemical Equations Basic tutorial

Chemical reactions are the heart and soul of chemistry, and representing them accurately is crucial for understanding the fascinating world of atoms and molecules. In this blog post, we’ll explore the art of balancing chemical equations, an essential skill that provides a clear and concise view of how matter transforms during reactions. We’ll also reference our accompanying video to delve even deeper into this topic.

Let’s start with a simple scenario: the combustion of methane (CH₄) in the presence of oxygen (O₂) to produce carbon dioxide (CO₂) and water (H₂O). This process can be initially described in a word equation:

Methane + Oxygen → Carbon Dioxide + Water

While this word equation conveys the idea of the reaction, it lacks the precision and detail needed for scientific communication. That’s where chemical equations come into play. They provide a more concise and precise representation of chemical reactions. Here’s how we can express the same reaction as a balanced chemical equation:

CH₄ + 2O₂ → CO₂ + 2H₂O

Now, let’s examine the art of balancing equations. The fundamental principle at play is the law of conservation of mass, which states that matter is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction. Therefore, the total number of each type of atom must be the same on both sides of the equation.

In our methane combustion example, the equation is initially unbalanced. On the left side, we have one carbon (C), four hydrogen (H) atoms, and four oxygen (O) atoms from the two O₂ molecules. On the right side, we find one carbon, two hydrogen atoms, and three oxygen atoms from the CO₂ and H₂O molecules.

To balance this equation, we must adjust the coefficients (the numbers in front of chemical formulas) while keeping the subscripts (the small numbers within the formulas) unchanged. The goal is to equalize the number of each type of atom on both sides.

Here’s how we achieve balance:

Initial Equation: CH₄ + 2O₂ → CO₂ + 2H₂O

Now, the equation is balanced:

1 Carbon (C) on both sides
4 Hydrogen (H) atoms on both sides
4 Oxygen (O) atoms on both sides

The coefficients provide the necessary adjustment to ensure that the law of conservation of mass is upheld.

Let’s explore another example: the reaction between sulfuric acid (H₂SO₄) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH), resulting in sodium sulfate (Na₂SO₄) and water (H₂O). Here’s the balanced equation:

H₂SO₄ + 2NaOH → Na₂SO₄ + 2H₂O

In this example, we initially balance the sodium (Na) and sulfur (S) atoms, and then we ensure that the number of hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms is balanced on both sides.

Balancing chemical equations may seem challenging at first, but with practice and an understanding of the principles involved, it becomes a manageable skill. For a more in-depth exploration of this topic, including step-by-step demonstrations, refer to our accompanying video. We hope this post has shed light on the importance and intricacies of balancing chemical equations in the fascinating world of chemistry. Join us in our next post for more insights into the captivating realm of science.